Technical & Research


Botanæco has a strong academic background, including ongoing lecturing & PhD supervision, and is engaged in the advancement of modern thinking, methods & science in practical consultancy.  This has had outlet in the preparation of technical reviews & methodologies, contributions to research, and the constant review & refinement of Botanæco's own practise.  This ensures that clients can be confident of assessment of the full range of current & evolving possibilities before arrival at the best solution(s) for their situation.

Areas of expertise

Botanæco has particular expertise in the following areas:

  • Botanical & ecological science
  • Deposition effects & mitigation
  • Environmental change in the present and throughout the Holocene epoch
  • Experimental & monitoring design
  • Multivariate statistical analyses & modelling
  • Palaeoecology & environmental archaeology
  • Geographical Information Systems


Recent involvement in research has focused on deposition mitigation; palaeoecological approaches to the settlement & demise of the Norse in Greenland; and the conservation of peatlands.  This experience keeps  Botanæco in contact with the leading authorities & thinking with consequent benefits for clients.  Specific examples are listed below:

  • Botanical aspects of the absorption of nitrogen oxides at the roadside using mycelium study, with the Transport Research Laboratory, on behalf of the Department for Transport’s, Science and Research Unit.
  • Late Holocene vegetation change on peatlands in relation to climatic and other environmental changes; and their conservation management.
  • Landscapes circum-Landnám: Viking settlement in the North Atlantic and its human and ecological consequences.  This was a three year investigation of what happens environmentally and socially when the Norse colonised a 'pristine' landscape
  • Footprints on the edge of Thule: landscapes of Norse-indigenous interaction.  This three year project investigated the complex relationships between Norse incomers and indigenous groups, their economies and interactions with the environment in parts of Greenland, Norway and Sweden.


A number of technical reviews have been prepared by Botanæco's Principal Botanist.  These maintain Botanæco at the forefront of best practice with an understanding of the underlying evidence & principles.  Clients can benefit from this through the delivery of well-founded advice & solutions.  Examples are listed below:


  • Evidence Standards for heathland habitats. Formulation of evidence standards for Natural England, for the assessment of impacts on heathland habitats. 
  • Green Infrastructure for the Built Environment. One of a team commissioned to provide national guidance for CIRIA on green infrastructure and its ability to further nature conservation and biodiversity.
  • Invasive Species Ireland. Responsible for formulating action plans to deal with chub, floating pennywort and zebra mussel; and for liaison with anglers in respect of the zebra mussel.
  • Options for the re-use of peat on wind farm sites. Review and formulation of options for the Scottish Environment Protection Agency for the re-use of peat on wind farm sites.
  • The Biodiversity of Scotland in a Changing Environment. A report examining future environmental impacts in Scotland for the Scottish Environment Protection Agency and an assessment of how the ecological landscape may be adapted to facilitate or mitigate change.

Further information

If you would like further information then please send an email or call Dr Andy McMullen, Principal Botanist & Director of Botanæco, on 01356 650410.